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Population growth, fitness, and body size are tracked over time.
One of the most exciting finds of the study was the explosion of growth in one strain of bacteria that had multiple mutations that enable them to digest citrate in the presence of oxygen.
Couldn't the pictures have been of different horses? Below we will explore several examples of biological progressions and ask what evidence there is that they represent evolutionary change over time.
Claim: Species have changed over time--descent with modification Prediction: If evolution is true and species have changed over time, then we would expect there to be examples of this preserved in rock strata, across geography, in a lab, or in recorded history.
In 1878 the above sequence of images was taken by Eadweard Muybridge to settle a debate among horse racers--when a horse was galloping full speed, did they ever have all four legs off the ground?
The human eye alone was not fast enough to resolve the dispute.
This phenomena is most obvious in 'ring species' that start spreading slowly over many generations around geographic obstacles, like mountain ranges.
The population diverges into two as it spreads around the geographic obstacle and by the time the species meets again on the other side of the obstacle so much time, mutation, genetic drift, and selection has taken place that the two species can no longer interbreed.
- The species spread from the north and traveled around the Central Valley and diverged into species that can not mate with each other in the south, due to their divergence, but can mate with the species in the direction that they migrated from.For some 60,000 generations the bacteria have been grown in a laboratory environment under controlled conditions and given very restrictive diets of sugars and nutrients.At regular intervals the bacteria are sampled, frozen, and DNA sequenced.Isn't that a waste to use multiple drugs to fight one condition? 2) It's use of a error prone reverse transcriptase to copy its genes.This essentially is the perfect storm of drug resistance evolution.